Recent clinical studies have identified olfactory dysfunction in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. Although these studies showed differences in olfactory function between healthy individuals and neuropsychiatric patients, no studies have compared the differences in olfactory function among neuropsychiatric disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate olfactory function among various neuropsychiatric disorders. Three-hundred and eighteen outpatients diagnosed according to the ICD-10 code participated in the study. Olfactory function was assessed using the Open Essence test. The differences in olfactory function among disorders were compared by analyses of (co-)variance. As expected, olfactory function was significantly affected by the age and marginally affected by the gender. We investigated the differences in olfactory function among patients with different neuropsychiatric disorders (F0-F9). Olfactory function significantly differed among the diagnostic groups. Post hoc analysis showed that patients with F0 had decreased olfactory function compared to patients from the other diagnostic groups. In particular, patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) had significantly poorer olfactory function compared to patients with other neuropsychiatric disorders. There were no differences among the other groups. These findings suggest that patients with AD had poorer olfactory function compared not only to healthy subjects but also to patients with several other neuropsychiatric disorders.
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